top of page

Exploring Dynamic Range In Cinema Cameras: A "Realistic" Overview - By Maty Young

Updated: Apr 16



LETS TALK ABOUT THE WINDOW IN THE ROOM


In my role as a Director and Cinematographer, navigating the complexities of filming high-contrast scenes has been a recurrent and challenging aspect of my work. When I'm faced with a scene where the lighting varies drastically, such as an interior with a bright window or a night scene with stark street lighting, the limitations of camera dynamic range become starkly evident.


Using standard filming equipment, particularly those not specifically designed for cinema (I'm looking at you, smartphone), I often see a dilemma in exposure settings. If I set my exposure to capture the brightly lit areas of the scene, such as a sunlit window or a bright streetlamp, the problem arises with the darker elements. These areas, crucial for mood and detail, often fall into deep, impenetrable shadows, rendering them as silhouettes. This not only loses detail but can also affect the narrative, as important actions or expressions in the shadows can be missed.


Conversely, suppose I adjust my exposure to illuminate the shadowy areas of the scene, ensuring that the subtleties and nuances of darker elements are visible. In that case, I then encounter the issue of the brighter areas becoming overexposed. This results in a loss of detail in these parts of the frame, where highlights blow out to a featureless white. The delicacy of light and shade, so important in conveying texture and depth, is naturally compromised.


This balancing act is not just a technical challenge but also an artistic one. In cinematography, light and shadow play pivotal roles in storytelling. They set the mood, direct the viewer's focus, and convey subtext. When forced to choose between losing detail in the shadows or the highlights due to limited dynamic range, the storytelling capacity of the scene can be severely restricted.


Furthermore, this limitation often pushes cinematographers to find creative solutions. This may involve using external lighting to reduce the contrast in the scene, employing reflectors or diffusers to soften shadows, or strategically positioning the camera to minimize high-contrast areas in the frame.


In post-production, techniques like colour grading or HDR (High Dynamic Range) processing can be utilized to recover some details. However, these solutions can be time-consuming and resource-intensive, and they may not always fully compensate for the limitations of the camera's dynamic range.


As a cinematographer, dealing with high-contrast scenes is a frequent and complex challenge. It requires a careful balance between technical proficiency and creative problem-solving, all while striving to maintain the integrity of the story and the artistic vision of the film.



A CINEMA CAMERA VS.... EVERYTHING ELSE


There is a significant difference in the performance of professional cameras compared to more basic models, particularly in their ability to retain details in both highlights and shadows. This disparity is crucial, especially when capturing scenes with a wide range of light intensities. The question that naturally arises from this observation is: why does one camera outperform another in terms of dynamic range?


I. Sensor Size & Quality


One of the primary factors contributing to the superior performance of professional cameras is the size and quality of their sensors. Larger sensors, commonly found in professional-grade cameras, have a greater surface area to capture light (However this is mostly dictated by the size of the photosites). This allows the sensor to gather more information, especially in extreme lighting conditions. Furthermore, the quality of the sensor plays a significant role. High-quality sensors have better light sensitivity and noise performance, enabling them to handle a wider range of light levels without losing detail.


Cinema cameras come equipped with a variety of sensor sizes, each offering unique characteristics that influence the aesthetic and technical aspects of the footage. Here's a detailed breakdown of the most common sensor sizes found in modern cinema cameras


Full-Frame Sensor (36mm x 24mm):


  • Description: The full-frame sensor is equivalent to a 35mm film frame. It's the largest sensor size commonly used in high-end cinema cameras.

  • Advantages: Offers excellent low-light performance, a wide dynamic range, and shallow depth of field, allowing for cinematic bokeh effects.

  • Applications: Ideal for feature films, commercials, and high-end productions where image quality is paramount.

  • Examples: Cameras like the ARRI Alexa LF and Sony Venice use full-frame sensors.


Super 35mm Sensor (24.89mm x 18.66mm):


  • Description: Slightly smaller than full-frame, Super 35mm is the standard in traditional cinema and is similar in size to APS-C in still photography.

  • Advantages: Balances excellent image quality with more manageable file sizes than full-frame. It also offers a good depth of field and is compatible with a wide range of cinema lenses.

  • Applications: Widely used in feature films, documentaries, and television production.

  • Examples: The ARRI Alexa Mini and RED Komodo often feature Super 35mm sensors.


Micro Four Thirds (MFT) Sensor (17.3mm x 13mm):


  • Description: Significantly smaller than Super 35mm, the MFT sensor is popular in compact cinema cameras.

  • Advantages: Offers a deeper depth of field, which can be beneficial for certain types of shoots. It's also more affordable and allows for smaller, lighter camera builds.

  • Applications: Suitable for independent filmmakers, documentary shooting, and situations where camera mobility is key.

  • Examples: Cameras like the Panasonic GH5s and Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera use MFT sensors.


Each sensor size imparts a distinct look and feel to the footage, with full-frame sensors providing a more 'cinematic' look with a shallower depth of field, while smaller sensors like MFT are more versatile in various shooting conditions. The choice of sensor size ultimately depends on the specific requirements of the project, the budget, and the desired aesthetic.


II. Bit Depth


Professional cameras typically record images and videos at a higher bit depth compared to consumer-grade cameras. Bit depth refers to the number of bits used to represent each colour in an image. Higher bit depth, such as 16-bit linear and 12-bit log provides a greater range of colour and luminance values, which is crucial in maintaining detail in both the brightest and darkest parts of an image. This greater bit depth allows for more nuanced gradations in tones and is particularly beneficial in post-production, where colour grading can make the most of this extended range.


We'll get into this a little further in the article but take note of this dialogue taken directly from ARRI's website:

(this also applies to every other camera that films internal 12-bit RAW)


Why does ARRI store 16-bit linear images

in a 12-bit log container?


16-bit linear encoding is neither efficient nor necessary for recording images. Images can be converted from 16-bit linear to 12-bit log without any loss of information or quality but with great savings of data rate and data volume. 


ARRI’s ALEV 3 sensor captures 16-bit image data; our image processing chain packages that data in ARRIRAW or ProRes images using a 12-bit log scale. This assigns a fairly equal number of code values to each stop, which is more efficient than 16-bit linear and better represents how the human eye perceives light.


III. Advanced Image Processing Algorithms


The image processing algorithms used in professional cameras are often more sophisticated than those in consumer models. These algorithms are designed to optimize dynamic range, reducing the loss of detail in shadows and highlights. They can intelligently enhance underexposed areas while preserving the details in overexposed regions, leading to a more balanced and detailed image.


IV. Quality Of Optics (Lens choice)


Lens from esteemed optics manufacturers such as Zeiss, Cooke, Angénieux, and ARRI, together with more accessible, "budget-friendly" brands like DZOFilm, Laowa, Blazar, Dulens, Sigma, Rokinon, and Fujifilm, play a crucial role in utilizing a sensors true dynamic range and colour performance. These companies are celebrated for their high-quality lenses featuring sophisticated optical designs and coatings, which facilitate efficient light transmission with reduced distortion. The improved quality of light that reaches the camera sensor is essential for capturing detailed images in a range of lighting conditions. The variety of lenses available, from spherical to photographic, cinema-specific, zoom, anamorphic, vintage, and cutting-edge designs, each contributes a unique essence. In today's digital age, where top-tier cinema cameras regularly yield superior image quality, the significance of the lens, we argue, surpasses that of the sensor. Experience the difference for yourself – visit a local rental house, experiment with a wide array of lenses, and witness firsthand the remarkable impact that the right glass can have.


V. RAW Format Capabilities (And all the new flavours of RAW)


Professional cameras often can shoot in RAW format, which records all the data from the sensor without compression or loss. This raw data contains a much wider range of information compared to compressed formats, providing more flexibility in post-processing. This is particularly important for adjusting exposure, recovering details in shadows and highlights, and managing colour balance. More recently, camera manufacturers have started to introduce their proprietary RAW formats, like RedCodeRAW, BRAW, Apple ProResRAW, KineRAW, and others. These formats are designed to capture a vast amount of unprocessed data directly from the camera's sensor. This approach allows for greater flexibility in making creative colour and contrast adjustments during post-production


VI. Customization & Manual Controls


Professional cameras offer extensive manual control over settings such as exposure, ISO, and shutter speed. Not to mention adding completely manual cinema lens' with no electronics or automation. This level of control allows cinematographers to make precise adjustments based on the lighting conditions of each scene, optimizing the dynamic range capture.


VII. Technological Advances and R&D


The research and development (R&D) behind professional cameras are often more extensive, leading to technological advances that directly impact dynamic range. This includes innovations in sensor technology, image processing, and even the materials used in the camera's construction. These advances are typically introduced in high-end cameras before they trickle down to consumer-level equipment.


VIII. Heat Management


Professional cameras are better equipped to manage heat, which can be a significant factor in image quality and dynamic range. Excessive heat can increase noise, especially in the shadow regions of an image. Advanced cooling systems in professional cameras help maintain optimal operating temperatures, ensuring consistent performance even during prolonged use.


IX. Firmware & Software Support


Professional cameras benefit from regular firmware updates and professional software support, which can improve their performance over time. These updates can enhance image processing algorithms, add new features, or optimize existing ones to improve dynamic range capture.


X. Integration with Professional Workflows


Finally, how professional cameras integrate with the broader professional post-production workflow is a factor. They are designed to capture images that will be processed using advanced software and techniques, which can extract and enhance the dynamic range more effectively than consumer-grade processing tools.


A combination of factors contributes to the superior dynamic range performance of professional cameras. From sensor size and quality, bit depth, and image processing algorithms, to the quality of optics, RAW format capabilities, and advanced manual controls, these elements work together to capture a more detailed and nuanced image. This ability to handle extreme contrasts effectively is what sets professional cameras apart and is a key reason why one camera might outperform another in dynamic range. For cinematographers and photographers alike, understanding these factors is crucial in selecting the right equipment for capturing images that truly represent their artistic vision.



THE CONCEPT OF DYNAMIC RANGE

Dynamic range is a fundamental concept in both photography and cinematography, pivotal in determining how well a camera can reproduce the complexities of light and shadow in the real world. To understand dynamic range in depth, we must delve into its various aspects and implications.


I. Technical Definition


Dynamic range, in technical terms, is defined as the ratio of the brightest to the darkest elements a camera can accurately capture in a single shot. It represents the camera's ability to capture the widest range of contrast while preserving details in both the brightest highlights and the deepest shadows. This feature is vital in photography and cinematography because real-world scenes typically exhibit a wide spectrum of light, from the darkest shadows to the most intense highlights. To effectively assess a camera's dynamic range under controlled conditions, one useful tool is the Xyla chart. For an in-depth understanding of how to interpret and make the most of this chart, a comprehensive explanation is available from DSClabs at their website, which can be found here: DSClabs Xyla Chart Breakdown. This resource offers valuable insights into reading and applying the information provided by the Xyla chart to evaluate camera performance.


It's important to note that many camera manufacturers often overstate the capabilities of their latest models, particularly regarding dynamic range. They frequently claim over 16 stops of dynamic range, but in reality, these figures are often inflated, with actual performance typically not exceeding 13 stops. A notable recent example is the RED Komodo, which RED claims the Komodo to have over 16 stops of dynamic range. However, when tested by Cine D, it only demonstrated around 12.2 usable stops. The article can be found here: https://www.cined.com/red-komodo-6k-lab-test-dynamic-range-and-latitude-test/)


RED, Sony, and Canon are particularly known for this exaggeration of DR in their marketing. On the other hand, ARRI and more recently, industry newcomer Blackmagic (and even more recently Chinese cinema camera manufacturer Kinefinity) tend to be more reliable in their dynamic range claims, often delivering a performance that meets or exceeds their advertised specifications. (Companies that typically claim 13-14 stops of dynamic range for their latest flagship cameras are often those that provide accurate figures for their entire camera lineup.)


II. Limitations in Digital Imaging


In digital cameras, the sensor's ability to capture this range is limited. The dynamic range is often constrained by the physical properties of the sensor, particularly its photosites' (pixels) ability to accumulate charge. Once a photosite's full well capacity is reached, it can't record any brighter information, resulting in lost details in bright areas (highlights). Conversely, in darker areas (shadows), the signal can be so weak that it's indistinguishable from the sensor's noise floor. Many individuals argue that digital media will never match the quality of analogue film, but this viewpoint is increasingly being challenged. As digital technology advances, the distinction between digital and analogue film is becoming less noticeable. Renowned cinematographers, such as Roger Deakins, now exclusively use digital methods, a testament to the growing equivalence between digital and traditional film formats.


III. The Role of Bit Depth and Some Snake Oil


Bit depth plays a vital role in defining a camera's dynamic range, essentially determining the range of luminance levels that the camera can capture. Higher bit depths mean the camera can discern subtler variations in lighting, making a significant difference in image quality. An 8-bit image, for instance, is limited to 256 shades per colour channel, while a 12-bit image expands this range to 4,096 shades, enabling smoother transitions from light to dark.


In the professional cinema camera market, bit depths are often categorized as 16-bit and 12-bit. However, these labels can sometimes create confusion. The term '16-bit' is generally associated with a 16-bit linear colour space, which, in practical use, is akin to a 12-bit log. Brands like Sony and RED have developed proprietary technologies to record internal 16-bit linear, which they then compress into a 12-bit shell for ease of handling. This 12-bit log is subsequently re-expanded to 16-bit linear during the post-production phase.


On the other hand, manufacturers such as ARRI and Blackmagic Design utilize sensors capable of 16-bit linear recording but internally package the footage into a 12-bit container. This internally packaged footage is later "opened" to 16-bit linear using professional editing software like Adobe or DaVinci Resolve. Notably, both ARRI and Blackmagic employ a similar dual gain extraction method to maximize the information unpacked from this 12-bit log container.


Despite the varying marketing narratives, the end technical quality and the amount of information captured are fundamentally similar between these two approaches. This marketing practice of highlighting higher bit-depth numbers is frequently viewed as a strategy to boost the perceived technical excellence of certain camera brands. Notably, companies like RED and Sony are often in the spotlight for advertising their cameras with specifications around bit depth and dynamic range that exceeds what practical testing might indicate. This approach has led to industry-wide conversations about the difference between genuine technological innovations and the features that are merely highlighted in marketing materials. At our studio, we have been particularly impressed by two cameras in recent years: the Ursa Mini 12k and the ARRI 35. Their performance stands out, especially considering the significant $80,000 price difference between them. This disparity in cost yet comparable quality in output is a testament to the evolving landscape of camera technology and the importance of evaluating cameras based on practical performance rather than just advertised specs.


In essence, while the advertised bit depth figures may vary between brands, the real-world outcome in terms of image information and quality often remains consistent across these premium camera models. This insight is crucial for professionals in the field, highlighting the importance of understanding the actual capabilities beyond marketing claims and ensuring informed decisions when selecting equipment for high-end cinematography.


IV. Real-World Implications


In real-world scenarios, the limitations of dynamic range are most evident in scenes with extreme contrasts, such as a bright sky against a dark landscape. In such situations, the camera might be unable to capture the texture and details in both the sky and the landscape simultaneously. As a result, photographers and cinematographers often have to make a choice: expose for the highlights and lose detail in the shadows, or expose for the shadows and blow out the highlights.


V. High Dynamic Range (HDR) Techniques


To combat the limitations of dynamic range, High Dynamic Range (HDR) techniques are employed. HDR involves taking multiple photographs at different exposure levels and then combining them into a single image that encompasses a broader range of luminance levels. This method can effectively capture details in both the brightest and darkest parts of the scene. In video, similar techniques are used, along with advanced tone-mapping algorithms to retain more detail across the exposure spectrum.


VI. Impact on Aesthetics and Storytelling


The dynamic range of a camera doesn't just affect the technical quality of an image; it also influences the aesthetic and emotional impact. Scenes with a wide dynamic range can appear more natural and life-like, closely mimicking the human eye's ability to perceive a vast range of luminance. In contrast, scenes with a limited dynamic range might appear more dramatic or stylized, which can be used effectively for specific artistic intentions.


VII. The Evolution of Camera Technology


Camera technology has evolved significantly over the years, with modern sensors offering much higher dynamic ranges than their predecessors. This advancement has opened up new possibilities in visual storytelling, allowing filmmakers and photographers to capture scenes in ways that were previously impossible. Most cinema cameras sit within a range of 12-14.5 stops of dynamic range with that elusive 15th stop being very difficult to achieve. ARRI comes closest with a real-world 14.8 stops of dynamic range in its Alexa LF range. RED, Sony, Canon, and almost all mainstream manufacturers claim higher numbers however Xyla Chart and Imatest testing show that none of these cameras can cleanly breach 14 usable stops of dynamic range even though the marketing may suggest otherwise. Only recently with the release of the new ARRI 35 digital camera was that number shattered with a claimed 19 stops of range and a real-world tested 17. That is mind-blowingly good. For comparison, the human eye can only process about 22 stops of dynamic range.


VIII. The Importance in Post-Production


Dynamic range is also a critical factor in post-production, especially in colour grading and exposure correction. The ability to manipulate and enhance images in post-production is heavily dependent on the dynamic range captured by the camera. A wider dynamic range provides more flexibility in adjusting exposure, recovering highlight and shadow details, and achieving the desired mood and tone. This flexibility is particularly important in modern cinematography and photography, where post-processing plays a crucial role in the final output.


IX. Consumer Perception and Expectations


The increasing consumer awareness of dynamic range, especially with the advent of HDR displays and content, has raised expectations for higher-quality visuals. Viewers are becoming more attuned to nuances in lighting and contrast, expecting content that showcases realistic and detailed imagery. This shift has put additional pressure on camera manufacturers and content creators to produce equipment and media with superior dynamic range capabilities.


X. The Challenge in Live Environments


Capturing a wide dynamic range is even more challenging in live environments, such as sports events or concerts, where the lighting conditions are dynamic and unpredictable. In such scenarios, the camera's ability to quickly adapt to changing light conditions and maintain detail across the exposure spectrum is crucial.


XI. The Future of Dynamic Range in Imaging


The quest for a higher dynamic range continues to drive innovation in camera sensor technology. New sensor designs, such as back-illuminated sensors and those with dual native ISO, are pushing the boundaries of dynamic range. Moreover, computational photography techniques, which combine hardware capabilities with advanced software algorithms, are emerging as a promising avenue to further expand the dynamic range of cameras.



A Quick Comparison: RED, ARRI, Sony, and Blackmagic Design

(Because we don't have time to do them all)


Finally, we'll delve into the technical features, particularly the dynamic range, of four leading cinema cameras widely used across the industry today. These include the RED VV Raptor, ARRI 35, Sony Venice, and Blackmagic Design Ursa 12K, each notable for its distinct advantages and utilized in diverse cinematic projects, from high-budget blockbusters to budding professional productions. Our comparison will focus on their performance in practical scenarios, emphasizing their dynamic range and bit-depth capabilities.


RED VV Raptor X:



  • Specifications: The RED VV Raptor X is distinguished by its 8K resolution and full-frame sensor with GLOBAL SHUTTER!. While RED advertises an impressive dynamic range of over 16 stops for the Raptor, this figure is somewhat exaggerated. Nonetheless, the camera achieves nearly 15 usable stops of dynamic range, a figure that, though more modest, remains exceptionally impressive and sets a high standard in the industry. Like most RED cameras, they are unique in the industry, similar to select Sony models, for their ability to capture RAW footage in 16-bit linear format. This data is subsequently compressed into a 12-bit log container, only to be expanded back into 16-bit linear during the editing process. However, there is some debate within the industry about the necessity and accuracy of this initial step. Critics argue that this might be more of a marketing tactic than a practical advantage, as most contemporary cinema cameras record a 16-bit signal directly into 12-bit container, with the footage later being converted back to 16-bit linear in post-production. This raises questions about the real-world benefits of the camera's initial 16-bit linear capture.

  • Performance: The Raptor's 8K resolution with global shutter is a headline feature, offering filmmakers the ability to capture images with incredible detail and clarity with absolutely no rolling shutter when moving fast. This resolution and lack of rolling shutter is particularly beneficial for productions requiring high-quality visual effects, large format outputs, or the flexibility of cropping in post-production without losing image quality. The full-frame sensor, larger than the Super 35mm sensors found in many cinema cameras, provides a wider field of view and a more cinematic depth of field, allowing for more creative freedom in composition and focus. RED claims over 16 stops of dynamic range for the Raptor, which, in practical terms, translates to around 14.5 usable stops. This dynamic range enables the camera to capture a wide spectrum of luminance, from deep shadows to bright highlights, without losing detail. This capability is crucial for scenes with high contrast or varying lighting conditions, ensuring that the image retains its quality and depth. RED cameras are known for their advanced colour science, and the Raptor is no exception. It offers a natural and versatile colour palette, making it easier for colourists to grade the footage and achieve the desired look. The Raptor also uses RED's proprietary REDCODE RAW format, which is highly efficient and maintains the highest image quality while providing flexibility in post-production.

  • Technical Aspects: The Raptor maintains RED's tradition of robust and modular designs. Its compact form factor is suitable for a variety of shooting environments, from studio setups to handheld or gimbal-mounted configurations. The camera's modularity allows for easy customization with a range of accessories and lenses, making it adaptable to different production needs. RED's user interface is designed for efficiency and ease of use, with intuitive controls and settings. The camera integrates seamlessly into professional workflows, supported by a wide range of compatible software and hardware in the post-production pipeline. The Raptor excels in a range of shooting conditions. Its high resolution and dynamic range make it a great choice for everything from natural light environments to controlled studio settings. Additionally, the camera's sensor and processing power allow for impressive low-light performance, reducing noise and preserving detail in darker scenes. The RED VV Raptor represents a significant advancement in digital cinematography, offering a rare combination of high resolution, wide dynamic range, and superior colour science. Its capabilities set it apart


ARRI 35:



  • Specifications: The ARRI 35, the latest addition to ARRI's esteemed lineup, is a testament to the company's longstanding legacy in colour science and image quality. This camera represents a significant advancement in digital cinematography, setting a new benchmark in the industry. The ARRI 35 is equipped with a newly developed sensor that marks a leap forward in digital imaging. This sensor not only supports high-resolution capture but also enhances colour fidelity and tonal reproduction, closely mimicking the naturalistic quality of film.

  • Performance: One of the most remarkable features of the ARRI 35 is its dynamic range. With an industry-leading real-world capability of 17 stops, this camera offers unparalleled latitude in exposure. This vast dynamic range allows cinematographers to capture detailed images in both extremely bright and very dark environments, preserving subtle nuances in both highlights and shadows. ARRI's renowned colour science has been further refined in the ARRI 35. The camera produces rich, accurate colours that require minimal correction in post-production. This colour accuracy is especially beneficial for skin tones, making the ARRI 35 a preferred choice for narrative filmmaking. The ARRI 35 shows exceptional performance in low-light conditions. Its advanced sensor and image processing algorithms ensure minimal noise, maintaining image clarity with its single base iso of 800 and new Log 4 algorithm

  • Technical Aspects: ARRI's first new sensor in 13 years, as of 2024, (ARRI don't make their sensor in-house, with their sensor provider being a well-kept industry secret. This is common practice in the industry with almost no cinema camera manufacturers making their own sensors ) and its colour rendering and dynamic range have set the new standard once again. The camera's dynamic range is further supported by its efficient internal processing and colour grading flexibility in post-production. The ARRI 35 is not just a camera but a comprehensive tool for filmmakers who demand the highest quality in image capture. Its exceptional dynamic range, coupled with ARRI's signature colour science, positions it as a leading choice for professionals seeking the best in modern cinematography technology.


Sony Venice II:



  • Specifications: The formidable Sony Venice Mk2 camera offers large-format imaging with a resolution of 8.6K, and a unique detachable sensor design (See the making of "TopGun Maverick") With dual native iso and cinematic colour, the Venice comes in at the top of this list as one of the most popular on set cameras today.

  • Performance: While Sony often claims enhanced dynamic range for many of its cameras, even their flagship Venice model isn't an exception to this trend. Advertised with over 15 stops of dynamic range, it realistically offers around 13.5 to 14 usable stops. Despite this, the Venice still demonstrates the critical role of dynamic range in high-end cinematography, proving that 13-14 stops are currently the upper limit in the industry's dynamic range capabilities (The new ARRI 35 being the exception). This reality also shows that claims of over 16 stops aren't necessary to achieve a truly cinematic look. Additionally, the Venice's unique dual gain architecture, which is rare in high-end cinema cameras, ensures outstanding performance in various lighting conditions. This feature highlights the camera's adaptability and effectiveness in a wide array of filming environments.

  • Technical Aspects: Sony's exceptional colour science and dual ISO technology distinguish its cameras in the competitive market. Filmmakers using the Venice series often rely on Sony's supplied Cine-Lut for their final output. Demonstrating the capabilities of Sony's more accessible cinema cameras, "The Creator," an IMAX sci-fi blockbuster, was recently filmed using Sony's entry-level cinema camera, the FX3, priced at $4,000 USD. The FX3's impressive dynamic range, dual ISO, and renowned colour science highlight that a camera's sensor capabilities are crucial, rather than its size. This approach underscores the fact that high-quality cinematic results can be achieved with relatively compact and more affordable camera bodies.


Blackmagic Design Ursa Cine 12K:



  • Specifications: The Ursa Cine, renowned for its impressive 12K resolution & a new 17k sensor to come at the end of 2024, is particularly notable for projects demanding high levels of detail. Blackmagic Design advertises a true dynamic range of 16 stops for this camera. However, real-world tests have shown that it can effectively achieve up to 17.5 stops of dynamic range, taking on the highest dynamic range cameras in the world for a fraction of the price.

  • Performance: The Blackmagic cameras excel in capturing ultra-high-resolution images while offering a solid dynamic range. They perform exceptionally well in mixed lighting conditions, providing versatility in scenes with both bright and dark areas. The unique equal RGBW sensor in the full frame 12K sensor model closely mimics the colour qualities of celluloid film and competes with the esteemed colour science of ARRI. Blackmagic has gained recognition for producing highly affordable cinema cameras, significantly undercutting the prices of its competitors. Recent models, notably the 12K Ursa Mini Pro and the Cinema 6K Full Frame camera highlight Blackmagic's ambition to rival ARRI's renowned colour science. With their new cinema range including the Ursa Cine and Pyxis 6k, this is evidenced by the compatibility of many of ARRI's conversion LUTs with Blackmagic's BRAW footage. There have been notable improvements in highlight roll-off in Blackmagic's colour science, and with these new sensors, there is a clear focus on enhancing shadow detail retention, contributing to an increased dynamic range of 16 stops and above.

  • Technical Aspects: The Blackmagic Design Ursa Cine and Pyxis use Blackmagic's newest and very unique, full-frame equal RGBW photosite sensors, and colour science. It records internally in an industry-leading Blackmagic RAW format, which is optimized for high-resolution and high-dynamic-range footage. The camera also features some of the most advanced colour correction capabilities, allowing for extensive manipulation in post-production to enhance dynamic range output.

Gamma Curves and ISO Influence in Dynamic Range


The performance of these cameras in terms of dynamic range is not only a function of their sensor capabilities and internal processing but is also significantly influenced by their gamma curve settings and ISO performance.


  • Gamma Curves: Gamma curves are crucial in defining how a camera interprets and records the luminance levels within a scene. Standard gamma curves typically used in consumer cameras limit the dynamic range, leading to loss of detail in shadows or highlights. In contrast, log gamma curves, which are available in these professional cameras, offer a flatter image profile. This profile captures a wider range of luminance values, effectively compressing the brights and darks into the recordable range. This makes log gamma an essential tool for cinematographers looking to maximize dynamic range.

  • ISO Settings: ISO settings are pivotal in how these cameras handle dynamic range, particularly in challenging lighting conditions. A higher ISO can introduce noise, especially in the shadow areas, effectively reducing the dynamic range. However, professional cameras like these often have advanced noise reduction algorithms and multiple native ISO settings, which help maintain a broad dynamic range even at higher ISO levels. The choice of ISO setting, therefore, becomes a strategic decision in balancing noise against the need for exposure in low light conditions.


This overview highlights just a few of the most popular cinema cameras currently in use, focusing on RED, ARRI, Sony, and Blackmagic Design. Each brand's cameras offer distinct advantages, particularly in terms of dynamic range. The RED VV X Raptor and Blackmagic Ursa Cine are notable for their combination of high resolution and dynamic range, ideal for capturing scenes rich in detail. On the other hand, the ARRI 35 is widely acclaimed for its natural colour industry-shattering dynamic range (yes, it's that good) and reliable performance in a variety of lighting conditions. Sony incorporates features like dual base ISO and a detachable front sensor in its Venice lineup, offering unique flexibility and enhanced performance in low-light scenarios.



Dynamic range is a critical concept in visual media, influencing both the technical and artistic aspects of imaging. It plays a pivotal role in how we capture, process, and perceive images and videos. As technology advances, we can expect continued improvements in dynamic range, offering even more creative possibilities for visual storytelling and content creation. Understanding and effectively utilising dynamic range is essential for any photographer or cinematographer aiming to produce high-quality, impactful work in today’s visually driven world. ARRI has always led the charge in terms of real-world, usable dynamic range. However, very recently Blackmagic is battling for that title.



Our concluding recommendation is that if your budget allows, opt for the new Alexa 35, which is currently unmatched in terms of colour rendering and dynamic range. However, if it's beyond your financial reach and you want to move into the world of large format sensors, the new URSA Cine, in our subjective opinion, is currently the best price-to-quality cinema camera available today.




-M. Young




48 views0 comments

Comentarios


bottom of page